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Treatment strategies for inferior vena cava aneurysms

Published:April 16, 2021DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvsv.2021.03.017

      Abstract

      Objective

      An inferior vena cava (IVC) aneurysm is a rare but potentially life-threatening entity. We successfully embolized an IVC aneurysm in a patient with history of blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome, a rare syndrome with multiple venous malformations. This new case was added to a literature review of previously reported cases, to analyze the management algorithm.

      Methods

      A PubMed search for all English-language articles and abstracts of IVC aneurysm were conducted. A comprehensive descriptive analysis, including etiology, presentation, classification, comorbidities, and treatment options of our case joining all previously published cases, is presented and discussed.

      Results

      Including our new case, a total of 74 (44 males) IVC aneurysms were analyzed. The average age was 39.0 ± 21.1 years (range, 0.4-89 years). Forty-nine (66.2%) were symptomatic; common symptoms include abdominal or back pain (24/74, 32.4%) and leg swelling or heaviness (20/74, 27.0%). Nineteen (19/59, 33.2%) were complicated with vena cava thrombosis, and 14 (14/59, 23.7%) were complicated with deep venous thrombosis of lower extremities. Thirty-two (43.2%) accepted surgical or endovascular intervention. There were 26 type I, 13 type II, 31 type III, and 4 type IV aneurysms. In type I group, 25 of 26 were treated conservatively, 2 deaths were reported. In type II group, 5 of 13 accepted conservative treatment. In type III group, 9 of 31 accepted conservative treatment, and 1 death was reported. In type IV group, 3 of 4 accepted conservative treatment, and 1 death was reported.

      Conclusions

      Conservative management can be conducted in type I and type IV groups with close surveillance. For type II and III groups, considering the high incidence of vena cava thrombosis and risk of rupture, more active treatment should be considered.

      Key words

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