Clinical presentation and outcomes after endovascular management in a mixed pediatric and adult Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome population

Published:March 19, 2021DOI:



      We retrospectively studied the clinical presentations and outcomes of endovascular management in a mixed pediatric and adult Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome (KTS) population at a single academic medical center.


      We performed a retrospective study of patients with KTS who had been referred for endovascular intervention after evaluation and diagnosis by a multidisciplinary team at a single academic medical center during a 10-year period. The patient demographics, areas affected, presenting symptoms, previous treatments, imaging modalities, endovascular treatment types, number of treatments, and complications were assessed. The technical and clinical success rates were calculated.


      Twenty-six patients with suspected KTS were evaluated. Of these 26 patients, 20, aged 2 to 75 years, had been diagnosed with KTS using the International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies criteria and referred for endovascular management. The left lower extremity was affected most often. The presenting symptoms were pain (80%), edema (70%), bleeding (10%), numbness (25%), and claudication (25%). Of the 20 patients, 16 (80%) had undergone treatment of KTS before presenting to our institution. Magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound (US) were the most common imaging modalities. Fifteen patients underwent 46 endovascular treatments during the study period. The treatments included 5 endovenous ablations only, 4 US-guided sclerotherapies with endovenous ablation, 5 US-guided sclerotherapies only, and 32 catheter-directed venograms with additional interventions. Localized intravascular coagulopathy was the only procedure-related complication and occurred in one patient after three treatments. The technical success rate was 97.8%, and the clinical success rate was 100%.


      Endovascular intervention is safe and effective for KTS patients for whom conservative management has failed. Pain and edema were the most common presenting symptoms. Presenting symptoms may be related to pathology of anomalous veins, orthotopic superficial veins or deep veins. Venous claudication can be present in those with KTS despite patency of the deep venous system. Magnetic resonance imaging and duplex US are frequently used modalities for venous assessment. The complications of endovascular treatment are rare but include localized intravascular coagulopathy.


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